Garni Temple

Garni Temple - the only preserved pagan temple in Armenia is a must for everyone being in Armenia. This place has both historical and cultural value. 

The pagan temple of Garni was built in the 2nd half of the 1st century during the reconstruction of the fortress (77 AD). It was demolished in 1679 by the earthquake. The parts, fragments of graceful columns and wall stones were spread all around the temple. This circumstance made possible the restoration of the temple which took place in 1930s. With its general structure the construction is peripheral, the spatial-dimensional structure of which rising from high pedestal is crowned with luxuriously designed facade. It is supposed that the temple was dedicated to Mitra, the God of Sun. As a symbol of light and truth – Mitra was often illustrated in duel with a bull (darkness).   In the 10-15th centuries Garni was one of the biggest and remarkable townships of Armenia. During the archaeological excavations of Garni an early Bronze Age settlement of the 2nd half of 3rd millennium BC was discovered. In front of the fortress there was a town-like settlement, the traces of which were covered with medieval and new age constructions. The present structure of the fortress was established in 3rd-2nd centuries BC. With the succession of 14 rectangular towers and firm fence-walls a powerful defense-dike was created. In the parts were the attacks of the enemy were possible to be forced back with less forces, the towers are built with 25-32m distance from each other, and in the other parts they are placed nearer to each other – 10-13.5 m inside, forming an artificial bow, within which it was easier to make the enemy forces vulnerable. The compositional center of the fortress constructions was the column-designated temple, the 24 columns of which symbolize the 24 hours of the day. West from the temple, almost from the edge of the cape used to rise the large structure of the royal building. The Bathhouse consists of 4 rooms, succeeding each other in the same direction.
The first room, due to its position and inner more gorgeous design (mosaic floor, a pool created within a curvilinear delve, etc.) was the lobby-cloakroom of the bathhouse. With the same planning sizes and shapes, the second and the third rooms served as bathrooms, the 2nd room – for cold water and the 3rd one – for lukewarm water. Most of the 4th room, which immediately alternates the cold and lukewarm bathrooms and also has their shape and sizes, was the bathroom for hot water. In the north-western part the reservoir was located, and under the ground of the south-western part – the furnace meant for heating the water. Of scientific-artistic interest is the mosaic of the cloakroom, which is a monument representing monumental painting of pre-Christian Armenia .The 15-color natural stone-made mosaic floor of the bathroom is still preserved. Although the Temple of Garni resembles the Hellenic-period monuments, it is still an unexcelled sample of Armenian monumental architecture of its times. 
Leave a comment
  • No comments found